المدن الایرانیة/Mazandaran Province

Mazandaran Province

Mazandaran Province معلومات سياحية

The province made part of First Region upon the division of the provinces into 5 regions solely for coordination and development purposes on June 22, 2014 .

In the early 20th century , Reza Shah connected northern Elbourz to the southern slopes by constructing 7 new roads and railways , the provinces of Mazandaran and Gilan became known as Shomal by all Iranians (meaning "the North" in Persian Language) . It is a Caspian province in the north of Iran . Located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea , it is bordered clockwise by Russia (across the sea) , Golestan , Semnan , Tehran , Alborz , Qazvin , and Gilan provinces . Sari is the largest city and the capital of Mazandaran province .

Mazandaran is one of the most densely populated provinces in Iran and has diverse natural resources , especially large reservoirs of oil and natural gas . The province's four largest counties are Sari , Amol , Nur , and Tonekabon . Founded as a province in 1937 , Mazandaran was declared the second modern province after neighbouring Gilan .

The diverse nature of the province features plains , prairies , forests and rainforest stretching from the sandy beaches of the Caspian Sea to the rugged and snowcapped Alborz sierra , including Mount Damavand , one of the highest peaks and volcanos in Asia , which at the narrowest point (Nowshahr County) narrows to 5 miles .

Mazandaran is a major producer of farmed fish , and aquaculture provides an important economic addition to traditional dominance of agriculture . Another important contributor to the economy is the tourism industry , as people from all of Iran enjoy visiting the area . Mazandaran is also a fast-growing centre for biotechnology and civil engineering .

Human habitation in the area dates back at least 75,000 years . Recent excavations in Goher Tippe provide proof that the area has been urbanized for more than 5,000 years , and the area is considered one of the most important historical sites of Iran . It has played an important role in cultural and urban development of the region .

Indigenous peoples of the region include the ethnic Mazanderanis , who speak an Iranian language which most closely resembles Gilaki and Sangiseri language , but also has phono-typical similarities to several Caucasian languages , reflecting the history of the region and its peoples .



Scientific discoveries in the caves of Hutu and belt , a testament to the life of 75 thousand years ago have been found . Mythical land Iran of Mazandaran is an nd dating life in the Medians have said . Mazandaran the oldest human settlements in the Caspian province .


Pre-Islamic history

Before the arrival of the Iranian-speakers to Iran , native people of this area were subsistence hunters and cattle herders . Archaeological studies in caves belt and Hutu man in Behshahr in the Mazandaran date to approximately 9500 BC . Aryan migration from the north-eastern borders of modern Iran began around the third millennium BC , mixed with the natives . Amardids were a tribe living along the mountainous region bordering the Caspian Sea , including current day Amol , The Aryan people and Scythian tribes before the arrival of the next group , the Aryans , Medes , Persians , and Parthians lived in a part of the current Caspian . The region is known to have been populated from early antiquity , and Mazandaran has changed hands among various dynasties from early in its history . There are several fortresses remaining from Parthian and Sassanid times , and many older cemeteries scattered throughout the province . During this era , Mazandaran was part of Hyrcania Province which was one of important provinces .

With the advent of the Sassanid dynasty , the King of Mazandaran (Tabaristan and Padashkhwargar) was Gushnasp , whose ancestors had reigned in the area (under the Parthian empire) since the time of Alexander . In 529–536 , Mazandarn was ruled by the Sassanid prince Kawus , son of Kawadh . Anushirawan , the Sassanid king , defeated Zarmihr , who claimed his ancestry from the legendary blacksmith Kaveh . This dynasty ruled till 645 A.D. , when Gil Gilanshah (a descendant of the Sassanid king Jamasp and a son of Piruz) joined Mazandaran to Gilan . These families had descendants who ruled during the Islamic period .

Now called Mazanderan , comprehends the largest and widest portion of the low plain along the shores of the Caspian Sea . It is one of the most fertile provinces of the Persian empire , whether the mountains or the plains are considered . Travellers passing through the forests of Mazanderan , pass through thickets of sweetbriar and honeysuckle ; and are surrounded with acacias , oaks , lindens , and chestnut trees . The summits of the mountains are crowned with cedars , cypresses , and various species of pines . So beautiful is this district , that in the hyperbolical language of the orientals it is styled , Belad-al-Irem , or , the Land of the Terrestrial Paradise . Sir W. Ouseley relates , that Kaikus , the Persian king , was fired with ambition to conquer so fine a country , through the influence of a minstrel , who exhausted all his powers of music and poetry in the praise of its beauties : his strains read thus :

"Let the king consider the delights of Mazanderan , and may that country flourish during all eternity ; for in its gardens roses ever blow , and even its mountains are covered with hyacinths and tulips . Its land abounds in all the beauties of nature ; its climate is salubrious and temperate , neither too warm nor too cold ; it is a region of perpetual spring : there , in shady bowers , the nightingale ever sings ; there the fawn and antelope incessantly wander among the valleys ; every spot , throughout the whole year , is embellished and perfumed with flowers ; the very brooks of that country seem to be rivulets of rose water , so much does this exquisite fragrance delight the soul . During the winter months , as at all other seasons , the ground is enameled , and the banks of murmuring streams smile with variegated flowers ; every where the pleasures of the chase may be enjoyed ; all places abound with money , fine stuffs for garments , and every other article necessary for comfort or luxury . There all the attendants are lovely damsels , wearing golden coronets ; and all the men illustrious warriors , whose girdles are studded with gold ; and nothing but a wilful perversity of mind , or corporeal infirmity , can hinder a person from being cheerful and happy in Mazanderan" .

Such were the delights the oriental poet held out to his rulers in Mazanderan , in all the force of oriental exaggeration . The province of Mazanderan was doubtless a delightful province ; but there appear to have been some drawbacks upon its loveliness . Sir W. Ouseley states that on entering Mazanderan , he was informed that he would find a babr , tiger ; a guraz , boar ; rubah , foxes ; shegkal , jackals ; and a gurg , or wolf . Accordingly , the very first thing that he saw , on entering a village of Hyrcania , was the carcase of a , large wolf , which had been shofjust half an hour before his arrival , and which looked terrible in death , "grinning horribly a ghastly grin" , thus proving the truth of the poet , that , "every where the pleasures of the chase may be enjoyed" , if such may be termed pleasures . In ancient times , Hyrcania was infested with panthers and tigers , so fierce and cruel , as to give rise to a proverb concerning fierce and unrelenting men , that they had sucked Caspian tigers . The poet Virgil refers to this in his Aeneid . Representing Dido chiding iEneas , he puts into her mouth these words :

"False as thou art , and more than false , forsworn , Not sprung from noble blood , nor goddess born , But hewn from harden'd entrails of a rock ! And rough Caspian tigers gave thee suck !"

Strabo , who extends Hyrcania as far north as the river Ochus , says from Aristobulus that was a woody region , producing oaks and pines , but not the pitch pine , which abounded in India . It has been mentioned as a curious circumstance , that in Mazanderan an axe used for cutting is called tabr . Now the Tapyri , or Tabari , inhabited a district in Hyrcania , and if this name be derived from tabr , an axe , it will signify hatchet-men , or wood-cutters , a name very appropriate to the inhabitants of a country covered with forests like Mazanderan and , though restricted by the Greeks to the western inhabitants of that province , is equally applicable to those of the eastern part . According to Sir W. Ouseley , the name of the part in which the Tabari . lived , namely , Tabristan , or Tabaristan , signifies the country of wood .

According to Morier , Mazanderan is a modern Persian phrase , signifying , "Within the boundary or limit of the mountain" . This is confirmed by Sir W. Ouseley , who says , from Hamdallah , an eminent Persian geographer , that Mazanderan was originally named Mawz-anderan , or within the mountain Mawz . He says , The Coh-Alburz is an immense mountain adjacent to Bab-al-abwab , (Derbend) , and many mountains are connected with Alburz ; so that from Turkestan to Hejas , it forms a range extending in length 1000 farsangs , about 130 miles , more or less ; and on this account some regard it as the mountain of Kaf , (Caucasus) Its western side , connected with the mountains of Gurjestan , (Georgia) is called the Coh Lagzi , (Daghestan) and the Sur a lakaeim relates , that in the Coh Lagzi there are various races of people ; so that about seventy different languages or dialects are used among them ; and in that mountain are many wonderful objects ; and when it reaches Shemshat and Malatiah , (Samosata Melitene) it is called Kali Kala . At Antakia and Sakeliah , (Antioch and Seleucia) it is called Lekam ; there it divides Sham (Syria) from Room , (Asia Minor) When it reaches between Hems (Emesa) and Demishk , (Damascus) it is called Lebnan , (Lebanon) and near Mecca and Medina it is called Arish . Its eastern side , connected with the mountains of Arran (Eastern Armenia) and Aderbijan , it is called Keik , and when it reaches to Ghilan , (the Gelae and Cadusians) and Iraq , (Media) it takes the name of Terkel-diz-cuh ; it is called Mauz when it reaches Kurnish and Mazanderan ; and originally Mazanderan was named Mawz-enderan ; and when Alburz reaches Khorassan , it is called Lurry . From this it appears that Mazanderan signifies all the region within the mountain Mawz and the Caspian Sea , which lies east of Ghilan and the Kizil Ozan .

Unlike the rest of Persia , Mazanderan is watered by numerous rivers , or mountain torrents , all running from the mountains to the sea . The German traveller Gmelin , who visited this country a. d. 1771 , says that in the space of eight miles , on the road from Resht to Amot , 250 of such streams are to be seen , many of them being so exceedingly broad and deep , that the passage across is sometimes impracticable for weeks together . In this respect Mazanderan furnishes a striking contrast to the waste and barren shores of southern Persia , where for many hundred miles there is not a stream to be met with deep enough to take a horse above the knee . Hence arises the fertility of Mazanderan . So mild and humid , indeed , is the climate of Mazanderan , that it permits the growth of the sugar cane , and the production of good sugar , and that in perfection four months earlier than in the West Indies . From the lack of art and care , however , this gift of nature is not turned to account by the inhabitants of that province .


Post-Islamic history

During the post-Islamic period the local dynasties fall into three classes : 1. local families of pre-Islamic origin , 2. the ʿAlid sayyid s , and 3. local families of secondary importance .

The Bawandids who claimed descent from Kawus provided three dynasties . The first dynasty (665–1007) was overthrown on the conquest of Tabaristan by the Ziyarid Kabus b. Wushmgir . The second dynasty reigned from 466/1073 to 606/1210 when Mazandaran was conquered by 'Ala al-Din Muhammad Khwarzamshah . The third ruled from 635/1237 to 750/1349 as vassals of the Mongols . The last representative of the Bawandids was killed by Afrasiyab Chulawi .

The Karinids claimed descent from Karin , brother of Zarmihr who was the pre-Islamic ruler under the Sassanids . Their last representative Mazyar was put to death in 224/839 .

The Paduspanids claimed descent from the Dabyuids of Gilan . They came to the front about 40/660 and during the rule of the ʿAlids were their vassals . Later , they were vassals of the Buyids and Bawandids , who deposed them in 586/1190 . The dynasty , restored in 606/1209-10 , survived till the time of Timur ; the branch descended from Kawus the son of Kayumarth reigned till 975/1567 and the other , that of Iskandar the son of Kayumarth , till 984/1574 .

In the 9th-11th century AD , there were repetitively military raids undertaken by the Rus' between 864 and 1041 on the Caspian Sea shores of Iran , Azerbaijan , and Dagestan as part of the Caspian expeditions of the Rus' . Initially , the Rus' appeared in Serkland in the 9th century traveling as merchants along the Volga trade route , selling furs , honey , and slaves . The first small-scale raids took place in the late 9th and early 10th century . The Rus' undertook the first large-scale expedition in 913 ; having arrived on 500 ships , they pillaged the westernmost parts of Gorgan as well as Mazandaran and Gilan , taking slaves and goods .

In 1034 , Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi entered Tabaristan via Gorgan followed by the invasion of Sultan Mohammad Kharazmshah in 1209 . Thereafter , the Mongols governed the region until they were overthrown by the Timurid Dynasty . After the dissolution of the feudal government of Tabaristan , Mazandaran was fully incorporated into the modern Persian Empire by Shah Abbas I in 1596 .

In the Safavid era Mazandaran was settled by very large amounts of Georgians , Circassians , Armenians , and other Peoples of the Caucasus , whose descendants still live or linger across Mazandaran . Towns , villages and neighbourhoods in Mazandaran still bear the name "Gorji" (i.e. , Georgian) in them , although most of the large amounts of Georgians , and Circassians are already assimilated into the mainstream Mazandaranis . The history of Georgian settlement is described by Iskandar Beg Munshi , the author of the 17th century Tarikh-e Alam-Ara-ye Abbasi , and both the Circassian and Georgian settlements by Pietro Della Valle , among other authors .

Before the reign of Nadir Shah , the province was briefly occupied by the Russian army in the aftermath of the Russo-Persian War (1722–23) and returned to Persia in 1735 . Following the outcomes of the Russo-Persian War (1804–13) and the Russo-Persian War (1826–28) Russian influence in northern Iran , and especially Mazandaran and Gilan dramatically increased with most of it invaded by Russians , and occupied by Russian forces . Most major cities in the region had Russian schools and significant traces of Russian culture can still be found . This significant increase of Russian influence in the region would last all the way up to the 1946 and had a major impact on Iranian history , as it directly led to the Persian Constitutional Revolution . Several years after the revolution , the region saw another massive influx of Russian refugees (the so-called White émigrées) who fled the Bolsheviks . Many of the descendants of these refugees still linger forth in the region .



Mazandaran is located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea . It is bordered clockwise by Golestan , Semnan and Tehran provinces . This province also borders Qazvin and Gilan to the west . Mazandaran province is geographically divided into two parts : the coastal plains , and the mountainous areas . The Alborz Mountain Range surrounds the coastal strip and plains of the Caspian Sea .

There is often snowfall in the Alborz regions , which run parallel to the Caspian Sea's southern coast , dividing the province into many isolated valleys . The province enjoys a moderate , subtropical climate with an average temperature of 25 °C in summer and about 8 °C in winter . Although snow may fall heavily in the mountains in winter , it rarely falls at sea level .

Ecoregions :

·         Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests

·         Elburz Range forest steppe



Given the climatic changes and varying rates of rainfall in different parts of Mazandaran province , this region has a variety of climates , including the mild and humid climate of Caspian shoreline and the moderate and cold climate of mountainous regions . The western and central plains of the province , up to the northern foothills of Alborz Mountain Range , experience the mild climate of the Caspian region . In the 1,500- to 3,000-meter altitudes , there is a moderate mountainous climate , with long , cold winters , and short , mild summers . In this region , snow covers parts of the province even up to the middle of the warm season . In fact , snow can be observed in this region even in the warmest months of the year , which lends a touch of beauty to this region .



The population of the province has been steadily growing during the last 50 years . The following table shows the approximate province population , excluding the Golestan province , which has separated as an independent province in 1998 .

The population is overwhelmingly Mazandarani , with a minority of Azerbaijanis , Georgians , Armenians , Circassians , Turkmen and others .

In recent years the region has seen an influx of Iranians from other regions of Iran , many of them attracted by its nature and seaside .


Administrative divisions

The province covers an area of 23,842 km² . According to the census of 2006 , the population of the province was 2,922,432 of which 53.18% were urban dwellers , 46.82% villagers , and remaining were non-residents . Sari is the capital city of the province .

Mazandaran is divided into 15 counties (shahrestan in Persian) . All the shahrestans are named after their administrative center , except Savadkooh .



Mazandaran is connected to the capital of Iran , Tehran , through three transit roads : Haraz road (Amol-Rudehen) , Kandovan road (Chalus-Karaj) , and Firoozkooh road (Qaem Shahr-Rudehen) .



Dasht-e Naz Airport , serving the capital Sari , Noshahr Airport , and Ramsar Airport are the domestic airports that connect the province to the other parts of the country . There are some Hajj flights from Dasht-e Naz Airport as well .



Mazandaran is served by the North Railway Dept . of the Iranian Railways . The department connects the province to Tehran to the south and Gorgan to the east . The cities of Sari , Qaemshahr , and Pol Sefid are major stations of the department .



Mazandaran is a center for Iranian culture and has produced a number of famous poets . Similar scholars political and philosopher . wool , felting , felt hat and mat weaving industry Cultural Mazandaran is . Barf Chal , Lochu Wrestling , Palm and Tireg?n (Damavand national day) The local event will be Which is held each year .

The peoples of the two provinces are largely secular , and consequently women have had greater social freedom and independence than their Persian cousins . (Reference : "The Soviet Socialist Republic of Iran , 1920-1921 : Birth of the Trauma" by Cosroe Chaqueri . The cuisine of the province is very rich in seafood due to its location by the Caspian Sea , and rice is present in virtually every meal . Indeed , the rest of Iran was introduced to rice through Gilan and Mazandaran . Before the 1800s , Persians , Kurds , and other Iranian ethnic groups used bread rather than rice as an accompaniment to their meals , though bread remains a prominent staple among them . While bread remains very popular among those groups , in Gilan and Mazandaran , rice remains the choice staple of the indigenous inhabitants .



Mazanderani or Tabarian is a Northwestern Iranian language . Various Mazandarani dialects exist which are spoken in Mazandaran province and the neighbor province Golestan such as Mazanderani , and Gorgani and possibly Qadikolahi (Ghadikolahi) and Palani . Today , Mazandaranis also use Persian (Western Persian) . The educated can communicate and read Persian well .

A dialect of Azeri is spoken in the town of Galoogah .


Attractions Tourism and Historical and Natural

·         Mount Damavand

·         Abbas Abad Garden Behshahr

·         Tomb Mashhad Mir Bozorg Marashi

·         Tomb tower Sayyid Haydar Amoli

·         Safi Abad Palace

·         Malek Bahman Castle

·         Cheshmeh Kileh Bridge Tonekabon

·         Lajim Tower

·         Veresk Bridge

·         Castle Poolad Nour

·         Shapour Bridge Juybar

·         Bathroom Vaziri Sari

·         Tomb Darvish Fakhruddin Babol

·         Rescet Tower Savadkuh

·         Waterfall Tircan

·         Jameh Mosque of Amol

·         Jameh Mosque of Sari

·         Bridge Felezi of Babolsar

·         Imam Hassan Askari Mosque

·         Lake Miyansheh

·         Forest Park Nur and Amol

·         Clock tower Sari

·         Waterfall Sangeno

·         Heshtel Towers

·         Amoloo Mineral Water Spring

·         Harijan Village Chaloos

·         Tamishan Palace Noor

·         Div Sefid Cave

·         Alasht Village

·         Cemetery Ispe Chah

·         Zangian Cave

·         Cheshmeh Imarat Behshar

·         Haft Abshar Waterfall Babol

·         Hill Qlaya Ghale Kety

·         Bathroom Vaziri Sari

·         House Kalbadi Sari

·         House Manouchehri Amol

·         Tower Shervin Bavand

·         Church sourkh Abad

·         Watchtower of Babol

·         Tomb Shab baloo zahid Amuli

·         Mosque Jameh of Babol

·         Mosque Mohadesin

·         Abpari Waterfall

·         Lake Sahon

·         Forest Park Chaldareh

·         Forest Park Shahid Zare

·         Forest Park Mirza Kuchik Khan Haraz

·         Forst Park Kashpel

·         Miankaleh peninsula

·         Marko Summit

·         Forst Park Dalkhani

·         Do hezar Village

·         Abe ask Village

·         Shahrak-e Darya Kenar

·         Lavij Village

·         Sheikh Musa Village

·         Shoormast Lake Savadkuh

·         Forest Sange no Neka

·         Amoloo mineral water Spring

·         Ramsar mineral water Springs

·         Pahlavi Hotel Qaem Shahr

·         Band-e Borideh River



Rice , grain , fruits , cotton , tea , tobacco , sugarcane , and silk are produced in the lowland strip along the Caspian shore . Oil wealth has stimulated industries in food processing , cement , textiles , cotton , and fishing (caviar) .

The province's pleasant and moderate climate , beautiful natural landscapes , and proximity to Tehran , have led the province to be one of the main recreational and tourism areas of Iran .

Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists close to 630 sites of historical and cultural significance , hence a wealth of tourist attractions .


Colleges and universities

Main universities of Mazandaran

·         University of Mazandaran , Babolsar

·         Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences , Sari

·         Babol Noshirvani University of Technology , Babol

·         Babol University of Medical Sciences , Babol

·         Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University , Sari

·         Shomal University , Amol

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